Alexander VIII, né Pietro Vitto Ottoboni (April 22, 1610 - February 1, 1691), pope from 1689 to 1691, was born of a noble Venetian family, was created cardinal, and then successively bishop of Brescia and datary. The ambassador of King Louis XIV of France succeeded in procuring his election on October 6, 1689 as successor to Pope Innocent XI; nevertheless, after months of negotiation Alexander finally condemned the declaration made in 1682 by the French clergy concerning the liberties of the Gallican church. Charities on a large scale and unbounded nepotism exhausted the papal treasury. He bought the books and manuscripts of Queen Christina of Sweden for the Vatican Library. Alexander condemned in 1690 the doctrines of so-called philosophic sin, taught in the Jesuit schools. He died on February 1, 1691.