Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén (May 30, 1908; Norrköping, Sweden - April 2, 1995; Djursholm, Sweden) was a Swedish electrical power engineer. Some considered him an astrophysicist.
Alfvén received a PhD from the University of Uppsala in 1934. His thesis was entitled "Investigations of the Ultra-short Electromagnetic Waves."
In 1934, he taught physics at both the University of Uppsala and the Nobel Institute for Physics in Stockholm. In 1940, he became professor of electromagnetic theory and electrical measurements at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm. In 1945, he acquired the nonappointive Chair of Electronics at Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm. It was changed to a Chair of Plasma Physics in 1963. In 1967, after leaving Sweden and spending some time in the Soviet Union, he moved to America. He worked in the departments of electrical engineering at two universities, the University of California, San Diego and the University of Southern California.
Alfvén considered himself an electrical power engineer. During his scientific career, prior to winning the Nobel Prize, Alfvén was not generally recognized as a leading innovator in the scientific community (though they were using his work). He enjoyed the assertion that he was guilty of a fault or offence by the entry into areas not previously explored in astrophysics leveled by other cosmologists and theoreticians.
Research, awards, and contributions
His work was continuously disputed for many years by the senior scientist in space physics, the British-American geophysicist Sydney Chapman. Alfvén had trouble with the peer review system. He did not in any circumstance benefit without volition the acceptance generally afforded senior scientists in scientific journals. Alfvén once submitted a paper on the theory of magnetic storms and auroras to the leading American journal Terrestrial Magnetism and Atmospheric Electricity and the paper was rejected on the ground that it did not agree with the theoretical calculations of conventional physics of the time. He was regarded as a person with unorthodox opinions in the field by many physicists. He was often forced to publish his papers in obscure journals.
He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1970 for his work with magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In 1988, Alfvén was awarded by the American Geophysical Union the Bowie medal, for his work on comets and plasmas in the solar system.
Alfvén has also been awarded:
Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society (1967)
Gold Medal of the Franklin Institute (1971)
Lomonosov Gold Medal of the USSR Academy of Sciences (1971)
Academies and institutes with Alfvén in their membership:
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (life fellow)
European Physical Society
American Academy of Arts and Sciences
Yugoslav Academy of Sciences
Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs
A creative and intuitive intellect of the 20th century, Alfvén was one of the few scientists who was a foreign member of both the U.S. and Soviet Academies of Sciences.
Developed and researched
He played a central role in the development of:
Charged particle beams
Solar phenomenon investigation (such as the solar wind)
In 1939, Alfvén proposed the theory of magnetic storms and auroras and the theory of plasma dynamics in the earth's magnetosphere. Electric charges spiraling in magnetic fields caused the motions of electrons and ions.
Applications of his research in space science include:
Van Allen radiation belt explanations
Earth's magnetic field reduction during magnetic storms
Magnetosphere (protective plasma covering the earth)
Formation of comet tails
Formation of the solar system
Dynamics of plasmas in the galaxy
Fundamental nature of the universe
Alfvén conducted interplanetary and magnetospheric physics research.
Alfvén's views followed the founder of magnetospheric physics, Kristian Birkeland. At the end of the nineteenth century, Birkeland proposed (backed by extensive data) that electric currents flowing down along the earth's magnetic fields into the atmosphere caused of the aurora and polar magnetic disturbances.
Alfvén's contributions helped develop:
Particle beam accelerators
Controlled thermonuclear fusion
Reentry braking of space vehicles
Alfvén's contributions to astrophysics:
Galactic magnetic field forms - Cosmic Magnetism (1937)
Identify nonthermal radiation (synchrotron radiation) from astronomical sources (1950)
In 1963, Alfvén first predicted the large scale filamentary structure of the universe. This discovery perplexed astrophysicists till 1991.
Alfvén waves (low frequency hydromagnetic plasma oscillations) are named in his honor. Many of his theories about the solar system have been verified as late as the 1980's through measurements of cometary and planetary magnetospheres by satellites and probes. Alfvén's theories gained acceptance only two or three decades after their publication. He is also known for developing plasma cosmology, a non-standard alternative to the big bang. Among physicists today, there is a lack of awareness of Alfvén's contributions to fields of physics where his ideas are routinely used without recognition.
Alfvén versus the Big Bang
Alfvén and colleagues proposed an alternative cosmology to both the Steady State and the Big Bang cosmologies. Alfvén believed the problem with the Big Bang was that astrophysicists tried to extrapolate the origin of the universe from mathematical theories developed on the blackboard. The Big Bang was a myth according to Alfvén. This myth was devised to explain creation according to Alfvén. He confided with close friends that the theory tried to make science compatible with the authoritative declaration of creatio ex nihilo or creation out of nothing.
Alfvén proposed a plasma universe. This theory is called Plasma cosmology. He acknowledged that the theory may take time to be accepted by the popular consciousness.
In 1991, Alfvén retired his posts of professor of electrical engineering at the University of California, San Diego and professor of plasma physics at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm .
Alfvén spent his life alternating between California and Sweden. He died when he was 86 years old.
He had a good sense of humor. Alfvén participated in a variety of social issues and worldwide disarmament movements. Alfvén had a long-standing distrust of computers. Alfvén studied the history of science and oriental philosophy and religion. He spoke English, German, French, and Russian, and some Spanish and Chinese.
Hannes Alfvén was married for 67 years to Kirsten. They raised five children, one boy and four girls. The son became a physician. One daughter became a writer in Sweden and one a lawyer.
Alfvén wrote popular science books:
Worlds-Antiworlds: Antimatter in Cosmology (1966)
The Great Computer: A Vision (1968) [pen name: Olof Johannesson]
Atom, Man, and the Universe: A Long Chain of Complications (1969)
Living on the Third Planet (1972).
"We have to learn again that science without contact with experiments is an enterprise which is likely to go completely astray into imaginary conjecture." - H. Alfvén
"To try to write a grand cosmical drama leads necessarily to myth. To try to let knowledge substitute ignorance in increasingly larger regions of space and time is science." - H. Alfvén
"The appeal of the Big Bang has been more ideological than scientific. When men think about the universe, there is always a conflict between the mythical approach and the empirical scientific approach. In myth, one tries to deduce how the gods must have created the world - what perfect principles must have been used." - H. Alfvén
"During Alfvén's visit he gave a lecture at the University of Chicago, which was attended by Enrico Fermi. As Alfvén described his work, Fermi nodded his head and said, 'Of course.' The next day the entire world of physics said. 'Oh. of course.'" - Alex Dessler, editor Geophysical Research Letters
"When I entered the field of space physics in 1956, I recall that I fell in with the crowd believing, for example, that electric fields could not exist in the highly conducting plasma of space. It was three years later that I was shamed by S. Chandrasekhar into investigating Alfvén's work objectively. My degree of shock and surprise in finding Alfvén right and his critics wrong can hardly be described. I learned that a cosmic ray acceleration mechanism basically identical to the famous mechanism suggested by Fermi in 1949 had [previously] been put forth by Alfvén." - Alex Dessler