Boleslaus III the Wrymouth (Bolesław III Krzywousty), (1086-1138) was duke of Poland from 1102. he was a son of son of Ladislaus Herman of Poland and Judith of Bohemia.
He defeated the Pomeranians at the battle of Naklo in 1109, and took control of Pomerania between 1119 and 1123, regaining Polish access to the sea. He also defeated Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor in 1109, in the Battle of Hundsfeld.
Boleslaus also campaigned in Hungary from 1132 to 1135, but to little effect.
First he married Zbyslava of Kiev, daughter of Swiatopelk II grand duke of Kiev. They had one son:
Ladislaus (b. 1105), King of Poland
Second he married Salome von Berg-Schelklingen, with whom he had 14 children (6 sons + 8 daughters) from whom we know of 4 sons and 5 daughters:
Boleslaus IV the Curly (b. 1125)
Mieszko III the Old (b. 1126)
Henry of Sandomierz (b. 1127)
Casimir the Just (b. 1138)
Rycheza of Poland (b. 12 April 1116), married to grandduke Volodar
Dobronega of Poland (b. 1128), married Markis Dietrich of Niederlausitz
Gertruda of Poland
Judith of Poland (b. 1132), married Otto I of Brandenburg
Agnes of Poland (b. 1137), married Mstislav II of Kiev
Before his death in 1138 he announced the testament (Boleslaw the Wrymouth's testament) dividing his land between four of his sons. The "senioral principle" established in the testament stated, that at every time the oldest member of the dynasty was to have a supreme power over the rest and also control an indivisible "senioral part" - a vast stripe of land running N-S through the middle of Poland, with Krakow as the main city. Senior's prerogatives included also control over Pomerania, which was a fief of the Empire. The principle was quickly broken, which began an almost 200 years period of feudal dissolution in Poland.