George Mercer Dawson (August 1, 1849-March 2, 1901) was a Canadian scientist and surveyor. Dawson was born in Pictou, Nova Scotia, the son of Sir John William Dawson. By age eleven George was inflicted with tuberculosis of the spine (Pott's Disease) that resulted in a deformed back and stunted his growth. However, his physical limitations did not deter Dawson from becoming one of Canada's greatest scientists. Tutors and his father provided his educational needs during his slow recovery from the illness. Dawson later attended Montreal High School and McGill University (part-time) before moving to London to study geology and paleontology at the Royal School of Mines beginning in 1869. Dawson graduated after three years with the highest marks in his class. Dawson received an LL.D. from Queen's University in 1890 and then from McGill University in 1891.
Dawson performed extensive surveys of Western Canada in the 19th century beginning with the International Boundary Survey from 1872 to 1876. The result was a 387 page report called Geology and Resources of the Region in the Vicinity of the 49th parallel from the Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains, with Lists of Plants and Animals Collected, and Notes on the Fossils. This report established Dawson as a respected scientist.
During 1883 and 1884, Dawson travelled through the Canadian Rockies where he was tasked by the Canadian government to map out major mountains and passes as well as significant rivers. Some of the many peaks he discovered were Mount Assiniboine (3,618m) and Mount Temple (3,543m). As a result of his field research, a map of his work was published in 1886 covering the Canadian Rockies from the US border to Red Deer Valley and Kicking Horse Pass.
Dawson became a staff member of the Geological Survey of Canada in 1875, progressed to assistant director in 1883 and finally the director in 1895.
Dawson died unexpectedly in Ottawa after a one day bout with acute bronchitis.